The influence of cooking methods and some marinades on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in beef meat
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CitationKılıç Büyükkurt, Ö., Aykın Dinçer, E., Burak Çam, İ., Candal, C., & Erbaş, M. (2020). The influence of cooking methods and some marinades on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in beef meat. Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds, 40(2), 195-205.
This study aimed to determine the effect of various marinades and their concentrations, as well as various cooking procedures, on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation in cooked beef. The PAH levels in meat were determined, based on the saponification of lipids by methanolic/potassium hydroxide solution, followed by liquid–liquid extraction and QuEChERS method. Pan frying caused lower levels of BaP (1.39 versus 1.62 µg/kg) and PAH4 (5.58 versus 5.73 µg/kg) in beef meat than barbecuing. For sage and thyme extracts prepared at 0.5 to 2.0 °Brix, a significant decrease in the PAH levels of barbecued meat samples was achieved compared to the controls. The levels of PAHs in the samples containing the commercial marinating material were found to be higher than those in the non-marinated control. The BaP and PAH4 levels found in the meat samples marinated with sage and thyme extracts, were below the EU maximum levels. However, BaP was the highest for Control 2 (2.26 µg/kg), and exceeded the EU maximum limit of 2 mg/kg for BaP in heat-treated meat and meat products. The results show a reducing effect of sage and thyme extracts that are normally used during marinating of meat, on the formation of PAH compounds. Consequently, the extracts of sage and thyme, could be used in the commercial marinating material to reduce the level of PAH compounds formed in meat during cooking.