External shame, loneliness, psychological distress, and well-being: insights from the Turkish adaptation of the Other as Shamer Scale-2
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KünyeSatıcı, B., & Deniz, M. E. (2020). External shame, loneliness, psychological distress, and well-being: insights from the Turkish adaptation of the Other as Shamer Scale-2. Current Issues in Personality Psychology, 8(2), 154-167.
BACKGROUND In this paper, we examine the Other as Shamer Scale-2 (OAS-2), a unidimensional and brief scale to directly assess external shame. In three studies with three independent samples of a Turkish university, we present evidence for OAS-2 validity with respect to well-being outcomes (subjective happiness, flourishing, and subjective well-being) and psychological distress outcomes (depression, anxiety, stress, and loneliness) through direct comparisons with existing measures. PARTICIPANTS AND PROCEDURE In Study 1 (N= 311), confirmatory factor analyses. measurement invariance across gender, and Item Response Theory (IRT) were examined. In Study 2 (N= 380), criterion-related validities of the OAS-2 were analyzed. In Study 3 (N = 252), incremental validity was examined using PROCESS. Also, internal consistency, composite reliability, and temporal reliability (n = 89) of the OAS-2 were investigated. RESULTS In Study 1, confirmatory factor analyses supported the unidimensionality of the measure. The results provide support for measurement invariance across gender. All item scores fit the IRT model and were fit with ordered, progressing hierarchies in their step difficulties. In Study 2, criterion-related validity for the OAS-2 was demonstrated through positive correlations with loneliness. and negative correlations with subjective happiness and flourishing. In Study 3, findings indicated the mediation impact of external shame on well-being via psychological distress. The OAS-2 showed satisfactory reliability coefficients. CONCLUSIONS Overall, the OAS-2 proved to be a valuable and reliable tool, which presents a short form to measure external shame. In addition, it was observed that the OAS-2 was related to both well-being and psychological distress.