Inhibitory effects of grape seed extract on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in beef and chicken meatballs cooked by different techniques
MetadataShow full item record
CitationKeşkekoğlu, H., & Üren, A. (2017). Inhibitory effects of grape seed extract on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in beef and chicken meatballs cooked by different techniques. International journal of food properties, 20, 722-734.
Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) are mutagenic compounds formed when foods are cooked at high temperatures. The objective of this study was to examine the efficiency of the grape seed extract (GSE) on the formation of HACs in beef and chicken meatballs cooked by four different cooking techniques (oven roasting, pan cooking, charcoal-barbecue, and deep-fat frying). Six HCAs; 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (norharman), and 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (harman) were measured. In addition, cooking losses, total phenolics, and radical-scavenging activities were determined. In the beef meatballs, the highest inhibitory effects were 69% for norharman, 65% for IQ, 65% for PhIP, and 59% for MeIQx, while in chicken meatballs were 73% for PhIP, 52% for IQ, 37% for MeIQx, and 31% for norharman. Results of this study suggested that addition of GSE can be an important factor in decreasing the levels of total HCAs in charcoal-barbecued beef meatballs (65%) and oven roasted chicken meatballs (37%).