Spatial characteristics of ecological and health risks of toxic heavy metal pollution from road dust in the Black Sea coast of Turkey
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CitationYeşilkanat, C. M., & Kobya, Y. (2021). Spatial characteristics of ecological and health risks of toxic heavy metal pollution from road dust in the Black Sea coast of Turkey. Geoderma Regional, 25, e00388.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the toxic heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) concentrations of dust samples from the Black Sea coastal road in the north of Turkey. The Black Sea coastal road was represented by 50 sampling sites. The highest average concentrations were identified in Ordu for Cd (0.4 mg kg−1), Cu (132 mg kg−1), and Zn (457 mg kg−1), Samsun for Cr (59 mg kg−1) and Ni (46 mg kg−1), and Artvin for Pb (59 mg kg−1). The analysis of the environmental pollution risk levels of heavy metals was evaluated with the geo-accumulation index (Igeo), pollution assessment indexes (CF and NIPI) and pollution load indexes (PLI and PLIzone). The mean values of Igeo were found in the following decreasing order: Zn (1.2) > Cu (0.5) > Cd (0.2) > Pb (−0.4) > Cr (−0.6) = Ni (−0.6). According to pollution assessment indexes (CF and NIPI), and pollution load indexes (PLI and PLIzone), there were relatively high levels of environmental pollution in Samsun, Ordu, and Artvin provinces, compared to other provinces in the study area. Furthermore, it was identified that the significant contribution of the monomial potential ecological risk (Ei) originated from Cu in Rize (57.6%), Artvin (46.6%), Giresun (40.2%), Pb in Trabzon (31.1%), and Cd in Ordu (71.8%) and Samsun (62.6%). The mean potential ecological risk (PER) values of Ordu and Samsun were categorized as considerable risk. The health risks of toxic heavy metals in road dust for adults and children were evaluated in two different categories, as non-carcinogenic (hazard index, HI), and carcinogenic health risks (total cancer risk, TCR), considering the three possible exposure pathways. In the study area, the mean of HI and TCR for children and adults were found in the negligible non-carcinogenic health risk (HI < 1) and the lower cancer risk range (10−6 < TCR ≤ 10−4), respectively.