An investigation of SO2 and PM10 emissions sourced from residential areas by using different models of distribution in körfez district
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In this study, the behaviours of SO2 and PM10 emissions emitted from the settlements located in the Körfez district in Kocaeli Province into the atmosphere was studied with the use of different distribution models. This study area is one of the most intense points in Kocaeli province in terms of industry. Therefore, the increases of region's population and residential areas have been observed in recent years. According to the obtained data from Körfez Municipality, 15 villages, 11 districts, 865 streets, 14150 buildings and 29128 housings locate in this study area. In the county, occupied area of housing buildings was found as 5,31 km2 with the help of Google Earth program and the area of housings was divided into four different areas while modelling. In the study, firstly, the fuels and their amounts used by housings for heating were determined according to the data obtained from Kocaeli Province Environmental Status Report and then the emissions rates were calculated with the use of mass - based emission factors of US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and with the help of obtained data. These rates were divided into occupied spaces of residential areas and were obtained the data in g/m2. The obtained data were entered into AERMOD (American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model), ISCST-3 (Industrial Source Complex Short Term) and CALPUFF VIEW (California Puff Model) programs in order to make modelling. As a result of the modelling work, daily and annual distribution maps were obtained. Analyzing maps, the obtained daily high concentrations for SO2 were calculated as 41,13 µg/m3 (AERMOD), 14,10 µg/m3 (ISCST-3), 35,16 µg/m3 (CALPUFF) and the obtained annually concentrations were calculated as 6,52 µg/m3 (AERMOD) 4,33 µg/m3 (ISCST-3) 10,18 µg/m3 (CALPUFF). The estimated highly daily concentrations for PM10 emissions were calculated as 86.70 µg/m3 (AERMOD), 69,47 µg/m3 (ISCST-3), 92,21 µg/m3 (CALPUFF) and annually concentrations for PM10 emissions were calculated as 17,10 µg/m3 (AERMOD), 11,51 µg/m3 (ISCST-3), 26,7 µg/m3 (CALPUFF). Analyzing of distribution maps created with the use of all programs, it was seen that, according to both daily and annual time options for both pollutants, the area where the most intensity of pollution located in residential areas. When the results of dispersion model program were examined, it was revealed that the results of each program different from each other. The causes of this situation were supported by literature research and these causes were reviewed.